Vol 7, No 2 (2016)

Articles
Antihypertensive and pleiotropic activity of the calcium antagonist amlodipine in patients with arterial hypertension and obesity
Bubnova M.G., Aronov D.M., Kuznetsova I.V., Vygodin V.A.
Abstract
The goal lies in the study of amlodipine effects on levels of blood pressure (BP), hypertensive reaction under isometric exercise, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, platelet hemostasis, quality of life (QoL) and psychological status in patients with arterial hypertension (AH), obese abdominal type. Material and methods. The study included 30 patients with hypertension of the 1st and 2 nd degree in age from 37 to 72 years (mean age 56.6±7.9 years) with abdominal obesity type. After a 2-week period "cleanse" of patients, amlodipine was administered at an initial dose of 5 mg, with an increase up to 2 weeks in the absence of 10 mg of achieving target blood pressure (less than 140/90 mm Hg). The total duration of treatment took 6 weeks. In a study conducted, the clinical examination and ambulatory BP monitoring were also included, and a manual isometric test was taken, to determine the concentration of lipids and lipoproteins, glucose and insulin platelet aggregation (spontaneous and under the influence of adenosine acid) was evaluated, as well as adrenaline in different concentrations. The questionnaires on quality of life, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used as well. Results. Against the background of 6 weeks of therapy with amlodipine, a decrease in blood pressure levels, as measured by the patient in a sitting position (21.7±8.2/12.3±4.6 mm Hg, p<0.001) and in the standing position (19.8±6.9/11.5±5.5 mm Hg, p<0.001). Appointment of amlodipine to patients with hypertension obesity has led to positive changes in the diurnal blood pressure profile. This was combined with a decrease in the heart rate of the patient in the sitting position (at 4.2±6.4 beats / min, p=0.002) and standing (at 2.6±5.9 beats/min, p=0.03). After 6 weeks of receiving amlodipine at the peak of isometric exercise were detected decrease in average blood pressure levels (20.2±11.6/10.2±5.2 mm Hg, p<0.001), heart rate (at 4.2±6.6 beats / min, p=0.002) and the value of the "double work" (30.2%, p<0.05). In response to isometric exercise there was a decrease in diastolic blood pressure level of growth (6.9%, p=0.012) and the value of the "double work" (21.9%, p<0.05). The therapy with amlodipine was observed decrease in total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. The concentration of blood glucose and insulin therapy remained stable. There was a positive trend to a decrease in platelet aggregation under the action of adenosine. QoL in patients with hypertension and obesity was significantly improved after 6 weeks of receiving amlodipine. Conclusion. In patients with hypertension and obesity demonstrated high antihypertensive efficacy of amlodipine, including the conditions of isometric exercise, inducing hypertensive reaction.
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):5-13
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Correlation of quality of life and significant seasonal fluctuations blood pressure in the morning hours in patients with arterial hypertension
Andreeva G.F., Deev A.D., Gorbunov V.M., Molchanova O.V.
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to identify the relationship between the quality of life of patients with arterial hypertension (AH) and the degree of seasonal fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) in the morning hours in these patients, as well as to trace the seasonal dynamics of the average morning levels of blood pressure in this group of patients. We analyzed the database of various studies carried out in our center between 1996 and 2011, which contained data 953 ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). ABPM data were analyzed in patients with hypertension, without serious comorbidities, who conducted blood pressure monitoring on a weekly background of antihypertensive therapy. Results of the study. It has been shown that diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the morning (at) was the highest in winter (83.5±13.7 mm Hg), at the lowest - in summer (80.2±11.5 mm Hg), which was typical of the seasonal dynamics of blood pressure generally. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was characterized by the highest level of the fall in blood pressure (133.3±18.7 mm Hg). The smallest - in the winter (131,8 B±17,6 mm Hg). The differences between the seasons are not reliable. When analyzing the results by using generalized linear models (Generalized Linear Models) and calculating the Fisher's exact test (F) The following patterns were identified. Intensity of seasonal increases in blood pressure (compared with the average level of blood pressure) was inversely related to the level of social support of friends, colleagues, relatives (Scale VI Quality of Life Questionnaire) (for F DBP was 4.29 (p<0.04), for SBP - F=11.29 (p<0.001)). In addition, men and older people, seasonal fluctuations in the garden are more pronounced (F=5.01 (p<0.03) and F=5,05 (p<0.03), respectively). Conclusion. Thus, the severity of seasonal fluctuations outpatient SBP and DBP was inversely related to social support of patients with hypertension. In addition to seasonal fluctuations in the garden was a significant age and gender. Seasonal dynamics of DBP was typical: BP levels were maximal in winter, in the summer - are minimal. At the same time, with the SDP of the highest level of blood pressure was observed in the fall, the lowest - in the winter.
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):14-20
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Association of polymorphisms of chromosome 4q25 in patients with atrial fibrillation
Shulman V.A., Nikulina S.Y., Poplavskaya E.E., Maksimov V.N., Aksyutina N.V., Nazarov B.V.
Abstract
The article deals with the issue of genetic determination of atrial fibrillation. In particular, it is shown that a rare polymorphism rs2200733 T allele on chromosome 4q25 statistically more frequently (p=0,029) in patients with atrial fibrillation compared with the control group data. The question of the functional significance of this polymorphism in the development of electrical instability of the atrial myocardium is also addressed.
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):21-23
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Reduced progression of atrial fibrillation in hypertensive patients with long-term treatment of propafenone
Tarzimanova A.I., Podzolkov V.I.
Abstract
In recent years, progress has been made in the study of the natural history of atrial fibrillation (AF) - that, from the stage of having no clinical manifestations, to the final stage, which is an irreversible arrhythmia, is associated with the development of serious cardiovascular complications. Most AF patients steadily progress in persistent or permanent form, but the risk factors and predictors of progression of the arrhythmia is not clearly defined. There is little research done on the effect of long-term antiarrhythmic therapy on the progression of AF. Objective. To evaluate the progression of arrhythmias in patients with arterial hypertension (AH) with paroxysmal AF in the treatment of propafenone (propanorm) compared to treatment with bisoprolol (Concor) in the long-term prospective study. Materials and methods. The study included 62 patients with essential hypertension aged 45 to 63 years. Patients were randomized into 2 groups: 32 patients in group 1 for storing heart rate propafenone took a daily dose of 450 mg, 30 patients in group 2 to control ventricular rate was appointed bisoprolol. Prospective monitoring of patients was carried out from 2011 to 2015, the progression of the arrhythmia was considered: increase in the frequency of paroxysms of arrhythmia in the last 3 months, the appearance of long-term persistent AF episodes or persistent AF. Results. In 14 (44%) patients in group 1 and 20 (67%) - group 2 5 years of observation, it was noted increase in the frequency and duration of AF episodes. The average value of arrhythmia progression into a more stable form of 9.3% per year in patients receiving propafenone, and 11.5% - bisoprolol (p=0.007). Keeping the treatment of sinus rhythm propafenone in a daily dose of 450 mg contributed to a significant reduction of the left atrium anteroposterior size from 43±3 to 36±3 mm (p=0.03). In the treatment with bisoprolol anteroposterior size of the left atrium was not significantly changed and amounted to 44±3 and 43±3 mm respectively. Portability of propafenone antiarrhythmic therapy was comparable with that of bisoprolol. No severe or serious side effects were observed in patients during the long-term prospective study. Conclusion. The five-year propafenone treatment of hypertensive patients with paroxysmal AF can reduce the progression of AF in a more stable form compared with bisoprolol therapy.
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):24-28
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Clinical efficacy of combined use of physical training and a fixed combination of an angiotensin receptor blocker II - valsartanumand the calcium antagonist - amlodipine on ambulatory (III) stage of rehabilitation in smoking patients with comorbid diseases (coronary heart disease, hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
Bubnova M.G., Sulim Y.N., Aronov D.M., Novikova N.K., Vygodin V.A., Meshcheryakova N.N.
Abstract
Goal. The study of the clinical efficacy of combined use of systematic physical training (PT) and a fixed combination of a blocker of receptors for angiotensin II (ARB), valsartanum (Val) to dihydropyridine calcium antagonist (AA) with amlodipine (AML), appointed as part of standard therapy for smokers in patients with cardio-pulmonary pathology outpatient (III) stage of rehabilitation. Material. The study included 30 men aged 40 to 65 years. All patients were treated with statins, aspirin, .-blockers, selective and systematic FT performed 3 times a week for 4 months (duration of the training - 60 minutes with a period of moderate intensity training load of 50-60% of the threshold power cycling). After randomization, patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=12) received additional angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and 2nd (n=18) - the combined preparation Exforge ® (AML 5-10 mg/Val 60 mg). Study duration - 4 months. Methods. In a study conducted clinical examination, bicycle stress test (VEM-test), echocardiography (echocardiography), ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), spirometry, determination of concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins, glucose, fibrinogen, uric acid, creatinine, a calculation of glomerular filtration rate by MDRD. They used questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), St George's Hospital (SGRQ) and quality of life (QOL) SF-36. Results. Against the background of the FT, combined with taking an ACE inhibitor or a fixed combination of AML/Val, reduced the number of smoked cigarettes at 20.8±5.2 pieces (<0.001) and 25.6±4.2 pieces (<0.001), respectively. Also, there was a significant decrease in heart rate: in the group of ACE inhibitors on the FT+3,7±4,4 beats/min in group FT+AML/Val at 6.4±4.1 beats/min (p=0,09 between groups). Reveals reduction of office blood pressure (BP): systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 37.3±6.3 mm Hg (p<0,001) in the FT+ACEI and 36.1±6.9 mm Hg (p<0.001) in the FT+AML Val, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 19.6±3.9 mm Hg (p<0,001) and 18.2±4.4 mm Hg (p<0.001), respectively. According ABPM smokers and train patients on therapy AML/Val group when compared with FT+ACEI noted a marked decrease in the average daily maximum SBP (-3 mm Hg, p<0.05), daily (at -4, 4 mm Hg, p<0.05) and the night (to -1,2 mm Hg, p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure variability in the night hours (-1.6 mm Hg, p<0.05). After 4 months of receiving FT was observed in the growth of the basic parameters of physical performance to a greater extent in the treatment of AML/shaft against receiving ACE inhibitors: FN capacity by 51.4% (p<0.001) and 32.3% (p<0.001), with a total length of FN by 51.6% (p<0.001) and 41,4% (p<0.001). Time to development of angina attack at HEM-sample after the FT in treated AML/Val increased to a greater extent (29.1%, p<0.05) against taking ACE inhibitor therapy. Both groups noted positive changes in the structural and functional parameters of the heart according to echocardiography due to lower average pressure in the pulmonary artery. In both groups there was an improvement of function parameters of external respiration, but to a greater extent in the group FT+AML/Val, as well as indicators of psychological status and quality of life. Conclusion. The inclusion of patients with a very high risk of cardiovascular events with comorbid disorders in the short (4 month) physical rehabilitation program phase III (on an outpatient basis) gives a positive clinical effect, worse when its combined with cardioprotective therapy (ACE inhibitors or AK/ARBs). This effect was most pronounced when joining the FT fixed combination of AML/Val.
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):29-41
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Features of zofenopril and enalapril in patients with stable ischemic heart disease in combination with arterial hypertension
Evdokimova A.G., Smetanin A.V., Evdokimov V.V., Kovalenko E.V., Kiyakbaeva E.V.
Abstract
Objective. Optimization of drug therapy in patients with stable coronary heart disease and arterial hypertension (AH) in the application of ACE inhibitors: zofenopril compared with enalapril. Material and methods. We studied 80 patients with stable angina II-III functional class (FC) and AG 1-2 degree (Mean age 58.8±8.8 years) who were randomly divided into 2 groups of observation for 40 people in each: 1 - receiving zofenopril, 2 - enalapril - composed of basic therapy consisting of nitrates, .-blocker, statin, aspirin. The duration of follow-up was 6 months. At baseline and in the dynamics of all patients underwent clinical, laboratory and instrumental studies. It evaluated the quality of life through «Seattle questionnaire» for patients with angina. The daily monitoring of blood pressure at the same time with an electrocardiogram, treadmill test according to the modified protocol R.Bruce, echocardiography was conducted. Conclusion. The use of zofenopril, more than enalapril leads to significantly improved quality of life, exercise tolerance, normalizes the diurnal profile of blood pressure, reduces episodes of ischemia.
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):42-46
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The phenomenon of long-term commitment (16 years) patients with physical rehabilitation after acute myocardial infarction
Bubnova M.G., Krasnitskii V.B., Aronov D.M., Novikova N.K., Kadushina E.B., Matveeva I.F.
Abstract
Goal. Description of the influence of systematic phisical training (PT) on some indicators of physical performance (Fed) and the assessment of daily locomotor activity and psychological status of patients after myocardial infarction and were followed for 16 years. Material and methods. We observed 11 patients (9 men and 2 women) who after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have participated in a one-year rehabilitation program, the basis of which amounted to the controlled PT of medium intensity (50-60%). Subsequently, patients continued PT program in hospital and in the home environment (observation of patients was 16 years). Programs of systematic PT were performed in a hospital, carried out with a small break in 2014-2015. Patients are constantly trained (ie the period of continuous PT amounted to 2 years), while a program of home exercises, patients try to perform consistently. They all underwent clinical examination, had a load test performed on a cycle ergometer protocol submaximal loading, questionnaires were evaluated by physical activity, level of subjective control, anxiety and depression and adherence to therapy estimated. Results. Blood pressure (BP) in patients were stable: in 2014 (prior to the beginning of organized PT) systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 127.9±15.2 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) - 74±6.3 mm Hg. In 2 years (2015) after the resumption of organized PT SBP decreased slightly to 121.2±7.0 mm Hg (p<0.05 to the value in 2014), DBP has not changed (79.9±5.4 mm Hg). In 1999, 9 patients were smoking, 2014 - 2 smoking people left, that is, 7 patients to stop smoking with the support of other group members altogether. Patients monitored their cholesterol (LDL) in the blood: 4 patients (36%) through diet and statins, 6 patients (54.5%) - only statins and only one patient - by diet. Motor activity in patients in 2014 was at the level of moderate (77.2±8.3 by questionnaire ODA23+) and remained so in 2015. Patients remained average tolerance physical exercise (PE) and they carried out the same amount of total physical work at HEM-sample and in 1999 (122±25 W) and in 2015 (113±25 W, p>0.05), ie, 16 years. In 2015, when compared with the 1999 peak of PE decreased SBP by 4.6% (p<0.05), mean arterial pressure (12%, p<0.01), double product (DP) magnitude 12.1% (p<0.01), as well as the rate increase efficiency of the heart by the DP to 33,4% (p<0.01). The average score on the anxiety level was 5.7±0.8 and the level of depression 5.8±0.6. Adherence to treatment was high in 70% of patients, ie, 4 points (the average score for the group of 3.8±0.2 on a scale of compliance by Morisky-Green). Conclusion. Involving patients in physical rehabilitation program in a group, in which established social relationships, there is the psychological comfort and prevalent sense of high responsibility for their own health on a background of good awareness through regular contact with the doctor to a large extent explains the phenomenon of long-term high level of commitment of these patients physical rehabilitation and treatment.
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):47-53
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The new initiative of the Russian society of cardiosomatic rehabilitation and secondary prevention and the “Astra-Zeneca” pharmaceutical company
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Abstract
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):54-55
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Current representation of endovascular treatment of patients with left main coronary artery disease
Vlasov V.Y., Rudenko B.A., Shanoyan A.S., Mazaev V.P., Akhadova A.S., Shukurov F.B.
Abstract
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is known as the gold standard treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease and has the highest level of evidence in European and American recommendations. However development of endovascular methods of treatment, and first of all decrease of in-stent-restenosis allow us to consider angioplasty and stenting of LMCA as an alternative method to CABG. The comparative world analysis of results of percutaneous coronary interventions and CABG is provided in article. It tells also how efficiency of percutaneous coronary interventions depends on such factors as lesion localization, diabetes, type of drug-eluting stent.
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):56-59
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Self-control as prevention of cardiovascular disease
Manuylova Y.A.
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a common problem with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Economic costs of treating the disease and its complications are very high. Diabetic complications arise with chronic hyperglycaemia in the case of hypoglycemia. Prevention of these conditions contributes to the maintenance of normoglycemia, what a crucial role it plays an adequate self-control. Precise instruments for measuring blood glucose at home with minimal errors make it possible to take measures to achieve a compensation of the disease, thereby preventing the occurrence of acute and late complications, improving the quality and duration of life for the patient and reducing the cost of its treatment.
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):60-63
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Clinical and psychosocial features of the management of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Petrova M.M., Pronina E.A., Krizhanovskaya E.V.
Abstract
The article describes the clinical and psychosocial particulars of type 2 diabetes mellitus in older adults. Are presented treatment goals and the importance of glycemic control in these patients.
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):64-68
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Practitioner's Lyceum: introduction
Perepech N.B.
Abstract
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):69
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Acute coronary syndrome: pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation (lecture 2)
Perepech N.B.
Abstract
The lecture discusses the current methods of pain relief, inhibition of thrombus formation process in the coronary artery, restoring blood flow in the coronary artery and prevent it retrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The results of large randomized clinical trials of the effectiveness of antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, fibrinolytic agents, indications for their use and dosing regimens. The results of clinical application of non-drug methods of restoration of coronary blood flow. Settle guidelines for choosing the optimal strategy for patients with acute coronary syndrome, depending on the characteristics of myocardial injury and the degree of cardiovascular risk.
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):70-81
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Sluzhenie serdtsu
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Abstract
24 июня 2016 г. у почетного кардиолога Российской Федерации профессора кафедры внутренних болезней №1 Красноярского государственного медицинского университета им. проф. В.Ф.Войно-Ясенецкого Владимира Абрамовича Шульмана юбилей - 80 лет.
CardioSomatics. 2016;7(2):82
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